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​How Are Touch Screens Made?

How Are Touch Screens Made?
Nowadays touch screens have become a part of modern life. Many things that once seemed like science fiction are now ordinary fact, but how can glass and metal sense our touch?
History
According to Elo Touchsystems' online history of the touch screen, Dr. Sam Hurst invented the first touch screen to speed his data management tasks in the early 1970s. From there, the modern touch screen has evolved into three separate designs.
Resistive touch screens
Resistive touch screens operate by insulating two electrically charged layers with a flexible barrier. The user's touch connects the layers, and the resulting electrical flow allows the computer to locate the touch.
Capacitive touch screens
In capacitive screens, an electrical field is generated on the surface of the screen. That field is disrupted by the user's touch, and electrodes on the edges of the screen measure changes in the current and can thus define the location of the disruption.
Acoustic pulse recognition
More complex touch screens use piezoelectric transducers to "hear" sound waves caused by the user's touch. Sensors in the edges of the screen measure the amount of time it takes for the pulse to reach the edge, and can then calculate the location of the touch.
Mobile touch screens
Because they are light and inexpensive, many manufacturers incorporate capacitive touch screens in their smart phones and other mobile electronics. A few companies have taken the technology to new heights, pioneering multi-touch features that allow the screen to sense two touches at the same time.

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